An Update on Upcoming Expeditions
The objective of this post is to share more details on some of our upcoming expeditions that may help unravel the mystery of the origins of the great and still largely unknown megalithic civilization of the Central Mexican highlands. Many of these locations are of difficult access, in remote or impervious terrain. We need motivated people to help us conduct these expeditions on the ground and document these ancient sites (with photos, videos and aerial images) – many of which have not been published before.
Anyone interested should contact me in private at the address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Here is an initial list of sites for investigation, with some preliminary information on their significance to our quest for the lost megalithic civilization.
1) Exploration of the Sierra de Huautla, Morelos
|The construction of the walls of Chimalacatlan in an old postcard drawing [Courtesy: Mexicoenfotos.com]|
We believe that the center of the megalithic civilization of ancient Mexico must be located somewhere in the still unexplored reaches of the Sierra de Huautla, a mountainous and heavily forested area to the South of the State of Morelos. This is where ancient legends located Tamoanchan, the fabulous “place of origin” of all Mesoamerican civilization – a city founded by the Gods themselves.
In February of 2015 we explored the mysterious ruins of Chimalacatlan in the Sierra de Huautla (Link here). This is a unique megalithic site consisting of immense stone walls and platforms occupying the summit of a hill. For its cyclopean style of construction, Chimalacatlan has been compared to some of the finest megalithic constructions of Peru, and is of a type entirely unknown in Mesoamerica. The age of these ruins is unknown, but early investigators of the site conservatively situated their origin in the 1st or 2nd millennium B.C. More reports have since surfaced on the existence of more extensive structures in the mountains near the modern day town of Huaxtla. These structures have been described as clearly megalithic or cyclopean, consisting of large stone blocks measuring as much as 2 meters in length. Several pyramids, plazas and large stone walls have been reported on the site, compatible with the presence of a large city.
The goal of the expedition will be to document and map these ruins, collect evidence for the existence of additional unexplored sites in the Sierra de Huautla and investigate their architectural analogies with other megalithic/ cyclopean structures in Mexico, Peru and elsewhere.
Additional information from the Mexican National Institute of History and Anthropology (INAH) - Link here
2) The Lost Pyramid of Teopantepec and the “City of the Gods” on the Cerro Colorado
|An illustration of the pyramid of Teopantepec, as it stood in 1807 [Dupaix, Antiquités Mexicaines, p.4, Plate 3]|
In a previous article (Link here), we identified the Cerro Colorado overlooking the modern day town of Tehuacan, Puebla, as the most likely location of an ancient pyramid known from early 18th and 19th Century documents as Teopantepec (“House of God on the Mountain”). It is possible that the original structure collapsed some time after these early reports were composed, but some remains of its megalithic stone facing may still be found on the Cerro Colorado. Local traditions mention a “City of the Gods” or a “Ciudad Perdida (Lost City)” on the nearly inaccessible summit of the mountain. On the site of this supposed lost city, satellite pictures show a vast rectangular enclosure with what appear to be the remains of an ancient pyramid in the middle.
The expedition will start from the nearby archaeological site of Tehuacan Viejo, from which a trail leads to the summit of the Cerro Colorado. It can probably be completed as a day-trip from Puebla.
3) Acatzingo de la Piedra – A monolithic pyramid and cyclopean walls
A short distance from the town of Malinalco (subject of another article – here), lies the town of Tenancingo and the site of Acatzingo de la Piedra. A monolithic stone pyramid has been recently found on the mountain known locally as the “Cerro de la Malinche”. The pyramid is known as the “Cama de Moctezuma”, and a number of pictures and videos of it exist over the internet. Other pictures show what appear to be portions of megalithic/ cyclopean walls partly covered by forest.
We will use a drone to map any structures that might exist closer to the summit of the hill, as well as any visible megalithic remains. This expedition can also be completed as a day-trip from Malinalco or Mexico City.
Additional information from the Mexican National Institute of History and Anthropology (INAH) - Link here.
4) Mexico’s Marcahuasi – The Sacred Valley of Tepoztlán
|A satellite view of the Valley of Tepoztlan, with the Popocatepetl volcano in the background [Courtesy Google Earth]|
Unbeknown to many, the famous Peruvian explorer Daniel Ruzo, who first documented and publicized the mysterious rock sculptures on the plateau of Marcahuasi, spent the last years of his life in Mexico in what he called the “Sacred Valley of Tepoztlán”. There, he believed that rock sculptures even larger and older than those of Marcahuasi existed in the mountains surrounding the town of Tepoztlán. He documented hundreds of colossal rock sculptures, forming what he called a “hidden blueprint” or a map pointing to the location of a legendary “Hall of Records”. Since the publication of his book “El Valle Sagrado de Tepoztlán”, the valley has however failed to attract a similar interest to its Peruvian counterpart.
The town of Tepoztlán, with its stunning landscapes and the enigmatic pyramid of Tepozteco, attracts thousands of tourists every year. Only very few of them, however, are aware of the research of Daniel Ruzo. The goal of our expedition will be to document many of the rock sculptures first described and photographed by Ruzo in his book, identifying signs or marks that could point to their artificial rather than natural origin. Because of the easy accessibility of Tepoztlán from Cuernavaca and Mexico City, this can also be completed through a number of day-trips from Mexico City. We will also use a drone to document the rock sculptures from the air and identify any other features not detectable from the ground.
5) The Mysterious Rock of Apoala
The great 19th Century ethnologist and explorer Hubert H. Bancroft collected the following tradition of the “Flying Gods” of the Mixteca. After a great deluge, two gods appeared to repopulate the Earth: “They made a very sumptuous palace – a masterpiece of skill – in which they made their abode upon Earth…on the highest part of this building was an axe of copper, the edge being uppermost, and on this axe the heavens rested […] This rock and the palace of the Gods were on a mountain in the neighborhood of the town of Apoala in the province of Mixteca Alta. The rock was called ‘The Place of Heaven´, there the Gods first abode on Earth.” [Hubert Howe Bancroft, The Native Races, Vol. IV]
Such a rock does indeed exist in the vicinity of the modern day town of Santiago Apoala. Several deep caves associated with the legend exist in the gorges of Apoala, and a number of very curious petroglyphs and Olmec rock-reliefs (one in particular, known as the “Danzante”) are said to exist near the summit of the rock of Apoala.
We will be looking for remains of ancient structures on or near the summit of the rock of Apoala, which may offer evidence for the existence of a “Palace of the Gods”. We will also investigate traditions of a labyrinth of ancient tunnels in a cave known locally as the “Cueva del Diablo (The Devil’s lair)”.
6) An ancient obelisk and carved reliefs in Axutla, Puebla
A satellite view of the Rock of Huehuepiaxtla (Axutla, PUE), along the Rio Atoyaque [Courtesy Google Earth]
Also in the region of the Mixteca Alta, the village of Huehuepiaxtla (Axutla, PUE) is home to a colossal rocky outcrop known locally as “La Gran Peña (the great rock)”. A number of pictures have been circulating on the internet of ancient carved reliefs and stelae found in the vicinity of the mountain, containing unusual depictions of supernatural beings which were believed to inhabit its summit. It is also said that ancient structures, including a large “stone obelisk” may exist on the summit – although no documentation of these puzzling remains could be found.
The expedition can probably be conducted as a day-trip from Puebla, with the objective of documenting many of these curious finds and confirm the existence of ancient megalithic structures near the summit of the Rock of Huehuepiaxtla.
7) A journey into the Underworld of Teotihuacan
|A large chamber in one of the caves that form the ancient Underworld of Teotihuacan, located a short distance to the East of the Pyramid of the Sun [Photo by Author]|
There are reportedly miles of ancient tunnels and interconnected cave systems under the ancient pyramid-city of Teotihuacan. We confirmed the existence of the tunnels and explored a small portion of this labyrinthine network to the East of the pyramid of the Sun in February of 2017 (Link here). Additional tunnel entrances are reported to exist near the palatial complex of Oztoyahualco, near Acolman, on the Cerro Gordo and in the Sierra de Patlacique to the south of the ancient city (these latter apparently carved in a very hard andesite).
Some of the tunnels are rumored to extend for many miles. Early archaeological reports speak of labyrinthine tunnels leading to vast hollowed chambers and pillared halls deep under the earth, which may have an association with the legendary Chicomoztoc, the “Place of the seven caves” considered to be the ancestral homeland from which emerged the ancestors of the Aztec tribes.
This expedition is likely to require proper speleological equipment for the exploration of the underground passages.
8) The mysterious subterraneans of Xochicalco
|A portion of an ancient tunnel under the acropolis of Xochicalco [Photo by Author]|
A number of ancient tunnels extend under the acropolis of Xochicalco, and there are also rumors of underground chambers and labyrinthine passageways running for many miles all around. Only a small portion of the tunnel system is presently open to the public (near the so-called solar observatory or “Cueva del Sol”). Other entrances can be found on the flanks of the acropolis, which lead to collapsed portions of the tunnel system (some of which we explored in April of 2017) – the tunnels are apparently very regular and are dug through a hard local kind of limestone. During the same trip we also documented large stretches of what appear to be polygonal/ cyclopean walls forming the substructure of the acropolis. The nearby Cerro de la Bodega is also said to contain a number of tunnel entrances.
This expedition is also likely to require proper speleological equipment for the exploration of the underground passages.
Link to a previous article on Xochicalco here
9) The Aztec sanctuary on Mount Tlaloc
|A 3D reconstruction of the Aztec sanctuary on Mount Tlaloc and the "Ghost Mountain" optical illusion [Courtesy: masdemx.com]|
The chief sanctuary of Tlaloc – the Aztec god of rain, was located on the mountain that bears the same name in the vicinity of Mexico City. The sanctuary on the summit, at an altitude of nearly 4,100 meters above sea level, is considered to be among the highest archaeological ruins in the world, and contains a number of significant astronomical alignments, including a long processional ramp and a ruined pyramid-observatory.
A curious optical phenomenon takes place on the summit of Mount Tlaloc during the month of February. Known as the “ghost mountain” (La Montaña fantasma), the phenomenon consists in an apparent optical mirage of a non-existing mountain in front of the peak of Mount Tlaloc.
The hike to the summit of Mount Tlaloc does not require any special technical equipment, but one night of camping on the mountain is required.
10) The search for the Cross of Xaagá
In a previous article (Link here), we described a mysterious megalithic tomb somewhere in the vicinity of Mitla. The tomb is in the shape of a cross and consists of several immense megalithic stone blocks measuring as much as 6-7 meters long. Several black and white pictures of the alleged tomb exist, dating from the early 1900’s, but its exact location has apparently been lost. If found, the tomb would be one of the largest megalithic structures in the entire American continent. The area is also characterized by the presence of rock art and cave paintings dating back thousands of years.
|Another view of the same structure after partial excavation, taken at an angle. [Photo Saville, 1902]|
An expert guide will be required for this trek, which can probably be done on horse or mule as a day trip from Oaxaca.