Monday, April 26, 2021

PART II – HIGH PRECISION MEGALITHIC ENGINEERING AT SAN MIGUEL IXTAPAN, MEXICO

In part I of this article (Link here) we discussed the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico, whose origins may date back to the Pre-classic or even Formative period of Mesoamerican civilization, over 3,000 years ago. The site is known for its incredible "Maqueta" stone, the model of a city sculptured in a huge basalt rock, as well as for its unique style of megalithic architecture.

High precision megalithic engineering

Even more than its remarkable “Maqueta” stone, perhaps the most distinctive aspect of this remote site is the presence of some huge megalithic stone slabs that are found both in their archaeological context as well as reused in various civic and religious buildings of the present-day village of San Miguel Ixtapan.

        For their exceptional workmanship and precision, these stone slabs are among the finest examples of megalithic stone carving to be found anywhere in Mexico and Mesoamerica, being perhaps only comparable to some of the finest specimens of Pre-Inca and Tiwanaku stonework from South America.

        Two slabs are found embedded in the walls of the early Colonial church of San Miguel in the center of town, with another large stela erected vertically in the church courtyard and a fourth one standing in one corner of the main square of San Miguel Ixtapan.

The finest and best preserved of the four carved andesite stone slabs that can be found in the center of San Miguel Ixtapan. Notice the remarkable flatness and regularity of the stone surface and the accuracy of the geometric cut, with straight edges and clear-cut right angles. [Photo by Author].

Another view of the same andesite stone slab in the south wall of the church of San Miguel Ixtapan. Its measures are 1.54 meters high by 1.23 meters wide, with a minimum thickness of 25 centimeters and an estimated weight of between 1-1.5 tons. [Photo by Author]. 

The very precise cut and remarkable right angles of the largest and best preserved of the andesite stone blocks found in the church of San Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author].

Another one of the carved andesite slabs incorporated in the walls of the church of San Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author].

A side view of the same slab, showing its thickness. [Photo by Author].

         A fragmentary slab is housed in the site museum of San Miguel Ixtapan, whereas two more can be found in their archaeological context within a ceremonial space known as the “Recinto de las Esculturas” (Enclosure of the Sculptures), located on one side of the main pyramid.

        Most of the slabs in the Church and in the main square are heavily eroded, the slab embedded in the south wall of the Church being by far the best preserved. We took accurate measurements of the largest of the stone slabs embedded in the south wall of the church. It measures 1.54 meters high by 1.23 meters wide, with a minimum thickness of 25 centimeters and an estimated weight of between 1-1.5 tons.

        All the slabs repeat the same geometric pattern, with minimal variations: It consists of a seeming ‘T’ shape with a rectangular hollow below. On some of the slabs the carving is plain, whereas on others the carvings are framed within a three-dimensional double or triple molding. The carving is extremely regular, following straight lines intersecting at right angles with the various planes of the stone cutting. Whereas the stone is not eroded, a remarkable level of flatness and polish is visible, which is even more remarkable if one considers that the stone out of which the slabs were carved is a hard, finely grained type of gray-green andesite, with a hardness of 7 on the Moh scale (comparable to 6-7 for granite).

        A significant exception to this pattern is offered by one of the slabs erected on the square in front of the church, which contains two “knobs” (possibly some badly eroded and defaced human head sculptures?) inside each arm of the inverted letter ‘T’. 

One of the wonderfully carved stone slabs found in front of the church of San Miguel Ixtapan. Unlike the other slabs, this one has two “knobs” protruding from the arms of the letter ‘T’. [Photo by Author].

A close-up view of the enigmatic slab found in front of the church of San Miguel Ixtapan; notice the two "knobs" protruding out of the arms of the inverted 'T' shape, a design reminiscent of similar Andean motifs. [Photo by Author]. 

A large basalt stela, carved from a piece of columnar basalt and now laying in front of the church of San Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author].

Fragment of another stela, this one without decoration, in one corner of the main square of San Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author].

        During our second visit to the site on April 24th, 2021 we were accompanied by archaeologist Victor Osorio Ogarrio, director of the archaeological site and museum of San Miguel Ixtapan and to whom goes our unconditioned appreciation for the excellent management of this small but very important archaeological site.

The two monolithic slabs found in situ within the “Recinto de las Esculturas” (Enclosure of the Sculptures), still in their original location. One can appreciate their different workmanship and orientation compared to the slabs in the church. The slabs on the left was covered with a white plaster stucco, apparently in an attempt to restore it after it had already suffered significant erosion. [Photo by Author].

Another frontal view of the two stone slabs inside the "Recinto de las Esculturas". [Photo by Author].

        This time we had the opportunity, thanks to Dr. Osorio, of visiting the “Recinto de las Esculturas”, located in a portion of the site that is regularly closed to the public. There we could observe two more of the huge stone slabs in their archaeological context. The slabs form a sort of separation wall delimiting a space for offerings, where numerous anthropomorphic sculptures dating to the Epiclassic period (ca. 900 AD) were found, which are now exhibited in the local museum with the exception of two that were left on site. The stone slab to the right of the entrance shows the same accurate workmanship and geometric moldings as the slabs in the church. Its orientation, however, appears to be upside down. The slab to the left is of much inferior workmanship – It was either an attempt to replicate the same pattern and design of the other slab, or the result of a repair attempt with stucco of an earlier stone slab, as evidenced by the fact that stucco was applied over a seemingly already heavily eroded surface. There is no consistency in the orientation of the two stone slabs, the one on the right having the ´T¨ at the bottom (upside-down from the ones in the church), the other having the “T” shape placed horizontally. It is quite possible that the stone slabs were only put in this chamber in secondary use and appropriated from some earlier structure. This, together with the degree of erosion visible on the surface of the left stone slab before it was covered with stucco, suggests that their origin must be at least in the Epi-classic period (to which period dates the arrangement of this chamber and the offerings laid inside it), but could be possibly much older.

A fragment of another stone slab in one corner of the site museum of San Miguel Ixtapan (the notebook is for scale). Unlike the slabs in the church, which are made of andesite, this one is considerably thicker and made of basalt. It comes from a site close to Rancho “I” about 5 kilometers from San Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author].

Rancho “I”

Thanks to Dr. Osorio, and while trying to unravel the mystery of the stone slabs, our curiosity was again picked by a carved basalt fragment housed in a corner of the site museum showing part of a geometric frame. Unlike all the other slabs at the site and in the church, which are made of a finely grained andesite, this fragment turned out to be of basalt, and much thicker than any of the other slabs at approximately 0.45 meters thick.

        After inquiring about the provenance of the fragment, we learnt it was brought to the museum in the late 1990’s from a site located approximately 5 kilometers from San Miguel Ixtapan. This site has, to the best of our knowledge, never been documented or excavated.

        Attracted by the possibility of finding more carved stone slabs at this site, we drove to Rancho “I” based only on some very rough indications provided by locals (due to the exceptional potential importance of this site and its lack of protection we decided not to disclose its location).

Exploring Rancho “I” with the help of a local farmer. Notice the very large mound to the left covered in huge basalt stone fragments. This is only one of several large mounds at the site. [Photo by Author].

        There we found evidence of what must have been a very extensive site – everywhere over a distance of several hundred meters one could see the obvious remains of buried mounds and pyramids, covered in fragments of basalt stone. Laying on the ground were huge masses of heavily eroded basalt, including basalt columns and other possibly worked rectangular stones. Near the base of one of the larger mounds we found a huge carved basalt stone slab, broken into three pieces. If complete, the stone must have measured at least 1.80 by 1.60 meters, with a thickness of between 0.4 and 0.5 meters and an estimated weight of between 4 and 5 tons. The design on the stone, as well as its workmanship, is comparable to the stones in the church and the fragment from the museum. To imagine that such exquisite moldings were carved in the very hard basalt without iron or other metal tools is simply astonishing.

The huge carved basalt slab found broken into three pieces at the newly discovered site of Rancho “I”. It is much thicker than the slabs at the church and made of basalt instead of andesite, yet the carving is similar. If complete, it would have measured 1.8 by 1.6 meters, with a thickness of 0.5 meters and a weight of 4-5 tons. Next to it is possible to see the excavation made by looters to remove the slab from its original site, together with numerous other pieces of wrought and unwrought basalt. [Photo by Author].

The largest and best preserve portion of the huge basalt stone slab at the site of Rancho "I". The two small holes were probably made by looters in an attempt to break the stone. [Photo by Author].

Another view of the same fragment. If complete, the slab would have measured 1.80 by 1.60 meters with a thickness of 0.5 meters and an estimated weight of 4-5 tons. [Photo by Author].

The author, standing behind the newly discovered carved stone slab at the site of Rancho "I". [Photo by Author].

        According to local farmers, the stone was discovered accidentally in the early 2000’s by treasure hunters, who removed it from a nearby trench (now filled with smaller stone fragments) and broke it into pieces while looking for treasure. When found, the huge stone was apparently intact. Now only three large fragments remain, with a fourth one (part of the letter ‘T’) missing.

        It is to be hoped that the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) will decide to take action to protect this remarkable site and remove the carved stone slab to a place where it will suffer no further vandalism. It is very likely that more carved stone slabs will be found at this site, which may reveal precious information about the civilization or culture responsible for its construction, and about the true age of the slabs.

An unknown civilization?

The type of megalithic architecture of San Miguel Ixtapan and the exceptional quality of its stone workmanship in such hard stones as basalt and andesite, has no parallel in ancient Mexico, and indeed throughout Mesoamerica. This is an entirely unique site, the silent testimony of a culture that vanished nearly without a trace hundreds or thousands of years ago, leaving only its abandoned stone monuments behind.

        There is no consensus as to which culture inhabited the area of San Miguel Ixtapan since at least the Formative and Pre-classic period. Aztec documents refer to the inhabitants of this region as the Chontal, a generic term in the Nahua language used to indicate any foreign people of non-Nahua descent.

        Previous studies have suggested a possible association of the site with the still enigmatic and poorly studied Mezcala culture of Guerrero (Reyna Robles, 2006), and other sites in the region of the Upper Balsas River.

        Another possibility is that the megalithic architectural style and artistic tradition of San Miguel Ixtapan represents an element foreign to Mesoamerica, maybe imported by means of trans-oceanic contact from South America. In this respect, numerous scholars (Malmstrom, 1995) have suggested a possible relationship between the Purupecha (or Tarascan) language spoken in parts of western Mexico, and the Quechua language of Peru and the Andean region of South America.

        Only more extensive excavations at San Miguel Ixtapan and at the newly discovered site of “Rancho I”, which promises to be even more extensive, may help to unravel the mystery of the origins of this unique megalithic culture that has no other known parallels in ancient Mesoamerica.

Some large scattered megalithic basalt blocks on the opposite side of the ravine from the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, laying in the shade of a giant tree. [Photo by Author]

Part of a megalithic basalt wall and stone arrangement on the opposite site of the ravine from the site museum of San Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author].

A monumental andesite pillar, nearly 2 meters high (the notebook is for scale), unfortunately defaced by graffiti, standing on one side of the parking lot of the archaeological site. Originally part of an arrangement of 3 similar pillars, it is the only one still standing. [Photo by Author].

A large block of columnar basalt, possibly a stela, near San Miguel Ixtapan, known locally as the “Piedra del Muerto” (Stone of the dead) for its vague resemblance to a coffin, now broken in two pieces. [Photo by Author].

The incredible “Maqueta” stone model of San Miguel Ixtapan, carved from a single huge boulder of basalt measuring 3 by 4 meters and believed to contain the representation of a yet unidentified city. See Part I of this article for more information. [Photo by Author].

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank archaeologist Victor Osorio Ogarrio, director of the site and archaeological museum of San Miguel Ixtapan for his kind permission to visit the “Recinto de las Esculturas” and for accompanying us on our visit to Rancho “I”.

The opinions expressed in this article are solely the Author’s and do not necessarily reflect the opinions and beliefs of Dr. Osorio, of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), or of the Secretary of Culture of the State of Mexico.

References

[1] INAH, “Zona Arqueológica de San Miguel Ixtapan”, on January 9, 2008. On-line resource: https://www.inah.gob.mx/zonas/46-zona-arqueologica-de-san-miguel-ixtapan. Accessed on April 20, 2021.

[2] Malmstrom, Vincent H. “Geographical Origins of the Tarascans”. Geographical Review, vol. 85, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 31-40.

[3] Osorio Ogarrio, Victor Ángel and Marco Antonio de León Cortés. “Una posible Diosa Prehispánica en San Miguel Ixtapan, Tejupilco”, Arqueología Mexicana, 158, July-August 2019, pp. 46-51.

[4] “Revista cultural San Miguel Ixtapan”, Expresión Antropológica, no. 1-2 Nueva Serie. Gobierno del Estado de México: Secretaría de Cultura, 1999.

[5] Reyna Robles, Rosa María, La Cultura Arqueológica Mezcala, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 2006.

[6]“San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de México”, Arqueología Mexicana, Especial 35, Estado de México, guía arqueológica, June 2010.

[7] Sinaí Gomez, Rodolfo, “Antecedentes Históricos - Tejupilco”, Municipio de Tejupilco, 2012. On-line resource. Accessed on April 25, 2021 through Archive.org: https://web.archive.org/web/20120327194635/https://www.tejupilco.gob.mx/contenido/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=59.

[8] Wikipedia, “San Miguel Ixtapan (Archaeological Site)”. Last edited on December 19, 2020. On-line: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Miguel_Ixtapan_(archaeological_site). Accessed on April 20, 2021.

San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico - PART I: THE INCREDIBLE MAQUETA STONE

A small site in the southern part of the state of Mexico, virtually unknown until it was only partially excavated in the early 1990’s, may hold the evidence of an unknown civilization that flourished at the same time as the mysterious Olmecs and left some incredible stone monuments that have no equals in other parts of Mexico and Mesoamerica.

The small archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan is located in the south of the State of Mexico, at the entrance of the Tierra Caliente region that from the highlands of Central Mexico leads down to the Pacific coast. One gets there from the city of Toluca on highway 134 after passing the town of Tejupilco de Hidalgo, or from the popular lake resort town of Valle de Bravo, from which it is only about 70 kilometers (45 miles) distant.

The enigmatic Cerro de la Muñeca, dominating the site of San Miguel Ixtapan from the distance and the subject of many curious legends and local traditions. [Photo by Author]

The site is only one of a handful that has been at least partially explored in the southwestern part of the State of Mexico, an otherwise blank spot on the archaeological map of Mexico. Its discovery only dates to 1985, when a huge sculptured “maqueta” model stone was uncovered by farmers plowing a field near the local cemetery. It was not until 1995 that a small portion of the site, including parts of a large pyramid and a Mesoamerican ball court – only one of three known in this part of Mexico – were excavated.

A view of the 40-meter long ballgame court of San Miguel Ixtapan, one of only three known in the State of Mexico. [Photo by Author].

A sunken patio on the south side of Basement 3. The “Recinto de las Esculturas” (Enclosure of the Sculptures) is found under the roofed structure next to a corbelled chamber also protected by a roof. [Photo by Author].

A panoramic view of the excavated portion of the site of San Miguel Ixtapan from a nearby unexcavated pyramid mound known as “El Calvario”. [Photo by Author].

The earliest traces of human occupation in the area date back at least 12,000 years, in the form of cave paintings in the nearby Sierra de Nanchititla. An unknown culture then occupied the site around 2,000 BCE. To this remote period dates a human burial found on top of a still unexcavated pyramid mound or platform, which contained a mosaic stone mask, another smaller mask made of jadeite with Olmecoid features, and a jade beads necklace, together with human remains that provided a chronological reference date for the burial (Sinaí Gomez, 2012).Since the time of the site’s discovery, several subsequent excavation campaigns have revealed at least five different periods of occupation of the site during the Formative, Pre-Classic, Classic, Epi-Classic and Post-Classic period.

Part of an offering discovered near the summit of an unexcavated mound in San Miguel Ixtapan during electrical works. It includes a mosaic stone mask, a jade necklace, earrings and a small pendant in the shape of a human head with possibly Olmecoid (?) features. A burial associated with the offering has been allegedly dated to 2,000 BCE. The culture that produced these artefacts is completely unknown. [Photo by Author]. 


A detail of the small Olmecoid (?) green stone mask associated with the offering. [Photo by Author]

A set of enigmatic stone idols with crossed arms, part of a larger offering found in the “Recinto de las Esculturas” (Enclosures of the Sculptures) area of the site, dated to the Epiclassic period (650-900 CE) [Photo by Author]


Mezcala culture (700 BCE - 650 CE) stone figurines from the Site Museum of san Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author]

Several Formative period ceramic figurines were also found, dating to between 800 and 200 BCE, showing affinities with the Tlapacoya and Tlatilco artistic tradition of Central Mexico. The discovery of a number of Teotihuacan style artefacts further testify to the site’s occupation during the Classic period, when it either came under direct political control or was influenced by Teotihuacan. After the fall of Teotihuacan, in what is known as the Epi-Classic period (750-900 AD), the site knew its greatest expansion, with the construction of several monumental structures and pyramids rivaling in size other nearby sites like Teotenango and Xochicalco.

After a period of abandonment, the site was then reoccupied by the Aztecs in the Post-Classic period, and remained inhabited until the time of the Spanish conquest.

The site nowadays consists of a large pyramidal platform with a temple and smaller rooms on top in which several sculptures were found, a Mesoamerican ball court, a monumental stairway built of large basalt blocks, and a sunken courtyard. Some very notable sculptures were found in niches and chambers of the main pyramid (also known as Basement 3), including a large stela with a depiction of the rain god Tlaloc, and multiple anthropomorphic figures with unusually crossed arms, a pose quite rare in ancient Mexico and with possible funerary significance.

The front of Basement 3, with another monumental stairway built of large basalt blocks. It is possible to appreciate the different stages and epochs of construction of Basement 3 in the alternation between different masonry styles. [Photo by Author].


The "Patio de las Esculturas" (Enclosures of the Sculptures" located on a terrace of the main pyramid, with two monolithic stone slabs and idols still in the same original archaeological setting where they were found during excavations in the mid 1990's. [Photo by Author]

A view of Basement 3, the largest pyramid at the site, from which it is possible to appreciate the monumental stairway leading up to the ballgame court plaza and a drainage channel on one side of the structure. [Photo by Author].

A detail of some huge basalt blocks that would have formed part of the monumental stairway. [Photo by Author].


The shrine to Tlaloc, on one side of Basement 3, where the Tlaloc stela was found. [Photo by Author].

A stela with an early depiction of the god Tlaloc. [Photo by Author].


A circular stone marker found in the ballgame court of San Miguel Ixtapan and dating to the late Epiclassic period (ca. 650-900 CE). [Photo by Author]. 

The site is also home to a small but very interesting site museum containing a wealth of objects found during the early 1990’s excavations, including ceramics, stone and jadeite ornaments, obsidian knives and points, copper and bronze artefacts (including a remarkable necklace with exquisitely worked human heads and figurines made of copper), as well as stone sculptures, votive offerings and a stone ring associated with the ballgame court. The artefacts show a remarkable range of trade interactions and a definite influence from the Mezcala culture of Guerrero and the Balsas river culture. The location of San Miguel Ixtapan was probably considered strategic on account of the presence of salt mines, still in use since prehispanic times, and of large deposits of columnar basalt providing readily available material for construction.

Part of a megalithic basalt wall and stone arrangement on the opposite site of the ravine from the site museum of San Miguel Ixtapan. [Photo by Author].


Another view of the same basalt stone arrangement employing huge megalithic stone blocks. [Photo by Author]

A monumental andesite pillar, nearly 2 meters high (the notebook is for scale), unfortunately defaced by graffiti, standing on one side of the parking lot of the archaeological site. Originally part of an arrangement of 3 similar pillars, it is the only one still standing. [Photo by Author].

The incredible “Maqueta” Stone model

The “Maqueta” stone is a huge carved basalt stone boulder, measuring some 3 by 4 meters. It was this stone, uncovered by farmers plowing a field, which first called archaeologists to the site in 1985. The huge stone is entirely covered in miniature representations of architectural structures believed to represent a city (whether real or imaginary is a matter of speculation), complete with temples, pyramids, at least five ballgame courts, plazas and sunken courtyards, all connected by avenues and stairways. Similar examples of prehispanic architectural models are known to exist from Xochicalco, Morelos; Plazuelas, Guanajuato; Valle de Bravo, Mexico (see our recent article and story here); Teotihuacan (Mexico), as far as Tikal, Guatemala. Among these, the one of San Miguel Ixtapan is possibly the largest and most complex, comparable to the famous Sayhuite stone of Peru.

The incredible “Maqueta” stone model of San Miguel Ixtapan, carved from a single huge boulder of basalt measuring 3 by 4 meters and believed to contain the representation of a yet unidentified city. Seen from the West. [Photo by Author]

Another view of the same "Maqueta" stone, from the North. [Photo by Author]

The "Maqueta" stone from the North, showing its left portion. [Photo by Author]

The "Maqueta" stone from the North, showing its central portion. [Photo by Author]

        Several attempts have been made to identify the site depicted on the stone, seemingly a hilltop ceremonial center of exceptional scale and complexity, but these attempts have so far proven entirely fruitless. It is possible that the stone portrays a yet undiscovered site, perhaps located in the mountains to the north and east of San Miguel Ixtapan, or that the city depicted was purely imaginary, a votive representation of an idealized place or sanctuary. It may well be a city that is still lost or the drawing of a city yet to be built.

A view of the "Maqueta" stone from the West [Photo by Author].

A set of monumental structures in the lower sector of the “Maqueta” stone, among which it is possible to observe the typical ‘I’ shape of a Mesoamerican ballgame court. The rock-cut temples and structure in the upper part of the picture resemble similar examples of rock-cut monolithic architecture from Malinalco and Acatzingo de la Piedra, also in the state of Mexico [Photo by Author].

Another view of the same sector of the “Maqueta” stone, showing a row of buildings inside what appear to be rock-cut trenches and a large pyramid complex and plaza below, now quite eroded. [Photo by Author].

An interesting double pyramid approached by a monumental stairway and facing a small plaza. [Photo by Author].

A detail of the main pyramid complex occupying the center of the “Maqueta” stone with a sunken courtyard approached by monumentalized stairways on three sides. [Photo by Author].

Another sector of the monumental “Maqueta” stone depicting what appear to be various rock-cut chambers and stairways below the main pyramid complex. [Photo by Author].

The depiction of a pyramid approached by a monumental stairway facing a Mesoamerican ballgame court with the typical ‘I’ shape. [Photo by Author].

A detail of the sunken courtyard or plaza to the West of the main pyramid complex, approached by monumental stairways on three sides. [Photo by Author].

The main pyramid complex, consisting of a large three-tiered pyramid, a plaza in front of the main pyramid with lower building or platforms on the sides and a monumental stairway giving access from the level of a lower plaza. The sunken courtyard is to the right of the main pyramid [Photo by Author].

A view from the South and from above of the lower sector of the "Maqueta" stone, showing various groups of buildings. The main pyramid complex is above in the picture. [Photo by Author]

A model temple sculptured on a separate piece of rock, from which it is possible to appreciate the stairway leading up to the temple and altar on top. [Photo by Author].

        There are no definite elements for dating the “Maqueta” stone, but archaeologists mostly favor a date in the Epiclassic or early Postclassic period (ca 900-1200 AD).

        In the second part of this article we will be discussing some of the other evidence of high-precision megalithic architecture in San Miguel Ixtapan.

- CONTINUED IN PART II -

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank archaeologist Victor Osorio Ogarrio, director of the site and archaeological museum of San Miguel Ixtapan for his kind permission to visit the “Recinto de las Esculturas” and for accompanying us on our visit to Rancho “I”.

The opinions expressed in this article are solely the Author’s and do not necessarily reflect the opinions and beliefs of Dr. Osorio, of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), or of the Secretary of Culture of the State of Mexico.

References

[1] INAH, “Zona Arqueológica de San Miguel Ixtapan”, on January 9, 2008. On-line resource: https://www.inah.gob.mx/zonas/46-zona-arqueologica-de-san-miguel-ixtapan. Accessed on April 20, 2021.

[2] Malmstrom, Vincent H. “Geographical Origins of the Tarascans”. Geographical Review, vol. 85, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 31-40.

[3] Osorio Ogarrio, Victor Ángel and Marco Antonio de León Cortés. “Una posible Diosa Prehispánica en San Miguel Ixtapan, Tejupilco”, Arqueología Mexicana, 158, July-August 2019, pp. 46-51.

[4] “Revista cultural San Miguel Ixtapan”, Expresión Antropológica, no. 1-2 Nueva Serie. Gobierno del Estado de México: Secretaría de Cultura, 1999.

[5] Reyna Robles, Rosa María, La Cultura Arqueológica Mezcala, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 2006.

[6] “San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de México”, Arqueología Mexicana, Especial 35, Estado de México, guía arqueológica, June 2010.

[7] Sinaí Gomez, Rodolfo, “Antecedentes Históricos - Tejupilco”, Municipio de Tejupilco, 2012. On-line resource. Accessed on April 25, 2021 through Archive.org: https://web.archive.org/web/20120327194635/https://www.tejupilco.gob.mx/contenido/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=59

[8] Wikipedia, “San Miguel Ixtapan (Archaeological Site)”. Last edited on December 19, 2020. On-line: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Miguel_Ixtapan_(archaeological_site). Accessed on April 20, 2021.